quinta-feira, 6 de julho de 2017

INDONÉSIA

INDONÉSIA 

WEST KALIMANTAN

West Kalimantan (IndonesianKalimantan BaratChinese西加里曼丹Teochew: Sai-gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city is Pontianak. The province has an area of 147,307 km² with a recorded 2010 census population of 4,395,983 .[2] Ethnic groups include the DayakMalayChineseJavaneseBugis, and Madurese. The latest official estimate (as at January 2014) is 4,546,439. The borders of West Kalimantan roughly trace the mountain ranges surrounding the watershed of the Kapuas River, which drains most of the province. The province shares land borders with Central Kalimantan to the southeast, East Kalimantan to the east, and the Malaysian territory of Sarawak to the north.
West Kalimantan is an area that could be dubbed "The Province of a Thousand Rivers". The nickname is aligned with the geographical conditions that have hundreds of large and small rivers that which can be and often are navigable. Several major rivers is still a pulse and the main line for freight hinterland, despite road infrastructure has been able to reach most districts.
Although a small part of West Kalimantan region is sea water, West Kalimantan has dozens of large and small islands (mostly uninhabited) spread along the Karimata Strait and Natuna Sea that borders the province of Riau Islands. The total population in the province, according to the 2000 census totaled 4.07343 million inhabitants (1.85% of Indonesia's population).

Historia 

The history of West Kalimantan can be traced back to 17th century. Dayaks were the main inhabitants of the province before the 17th century. The Malays migrated to West Kalimantan and established their own sultanates. The high Chinese population in this province was due to a republic founded by Chinese miners called Lanfang Republic (蘭芳共和國: Republik Lanfang) after they defeated the local Malay sultans. The government of Lanfang Republic was ended in West Kalimantan after the Dutch occupation in 1884.[citation needed]
West Kalimantan was under Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, when Indonesia declared its Independence. During the Japanese occupation, more than 21,000 people in Pontianak (including sultans, men, women and children) were kidnapped, tortured and massacred by Japanese troops during the Pontianak incidents. All the Malay Sultans on Kalimantan were executed and the Malay elite was devastated by the Japanese.
The massacre occurred from April 23, 1943 to June 28, 1944 and most of the victims were buried in several giant wells in Mandor (88 km from Pontianak). Allied forces occupying the area after the war found several thousand bones, and more than 60 years after the massacre, several secret graves of the victims were found in Mandor and the surrounding areas.[citation needed]
After the end of war, the Japanese officers in Pontianak were arrested by allied troops and brought in front of an international military tribune. During the trial, it was revealed that the plan to start the rebellion did not exist and instead was only an imaginary plan created by Japanese officers who wanted to get promoted.[citation needed]
A monument called Makam Juang Mandor was created to commemorate this tragic event.

During the 1930s the Dutch colonial powers initiated a "transmigration plan" to move people from heavily populated islands such as Java, to the less populated islands of Irian Jaya and Kalimantan. In the 1960s the Indonesian government granted the Madurese rights to clear forests for palm oil cultivation. This conflicted with the local Dayak tribes' traditional way of life. The tensions between the two ethnic groups resulted in major eruptions of violence in 1996, the Sambas riots in 1999 and the Sampit conflict in 2001, resulting in thousands of deaths.[4][5][6]West Kalimantan was the site of substantial fighting during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation under the Sukarno government in the mid-1960s. After Suharto deposed Sukarno in 1965, the confrontation was quickly resolved. Domestic conflict continued, however, for another ten years between the new military Suharto government and fighters organized during the confrontation and backed by the banned Indonesian Communist Party (PKI).(see Indonesian killings of 1965–66)

Geografia 

Boundary 

West Kalimantan Province is located in the western part of the island of Borneo, or in between the lines 2°08'N and 3°05'S and between 108°0'E and 114°10'E. The province is traversed by the Equator (latitude 0°), precisely through the city of Pontianak. West Kalimantan has a tropical climate, with often high temperatures accompanied by high humidity.
Other specific characteristics is that the West Kalimantan region including one of the provinces in Indonesia which is directly adjacent to another country on land, namely the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia. Even with this position, West Kalimantan is currently the only province in Indonesia that have officially had access road to get in and out of a neighboring country. West Kalimantan and Sarawak have open roads approximately 400 km long, spanning Pontianak-Entikong-Kuching (Sarawak, Malaysia) and can be reached about six to eight hours of travel. In the northern part of the province, there are four regencies that directly borders Malaysia, namely SambasSanggauSintang and Kapuas Hulu, which stretch along the Kalingkang Mountains-Kapuas Hulu.
Most areas of West Kalimantan is a low-lying land with an area of 146 807 km2, or 7.53 percent of the total Indonesian or 1.13 times the size of the island of Java. This region stretches straight from north to south along more than 600 km and about 850 km from West to East. Judging from the size of the territory, West Kalimantan is Indonesia's third largest province by area, after Papua (421,891 km2) and Central Kalimantan (152 600 km2). The largest regency is Ketapang (35,809 sq km or 24.39 percent) followed by Kapuas Hulu (29 842 km2 or peresen 20:33), and Sintang (21 635 km or 14.74 percent), while the rest spread over 9 (nine) regencies.
Gunung Palung National Park banner.jpg
Temajuk Beach, Paloh District Sambas Regency, West Borneo - panoramio (3).jpg
Danau Teratai - panoramio.jpg
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Pantai Pulau Datok.JPG

 SAMBAS REGENCY 

Sambas Regency is a regency in West Kalimantan Province of Indonesia. The regency is one of the original regencies in West Kalimantan. It covers 6,716.52 km2, and had a population of 496,120 at the 2010 Census;[1] the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 513,100. The principal town lies at Sambas.

Historia 

In the Sambas riots in 1999 Malays and Dayaks joined together to massacre the Madurese during the Sambas conflict. Madurese were mutilated, raped, and killed by the Malays and Dayaks and 3,000 of them died in the massacres, with the Indonesian government doing little to stop the violence.[2]

Population 

At the 2010 Census, Sambas Regency had a population of 496,116. The latest estimate is 538,944 people, consisting of 273,695 men and 265,294 women, with an average density of 76 peoples/km2.

Watershed 

Sambas has three watersheds (total: 516,200 ha): Sambas watershed (258,700 ha), Paloh watershed (64,375 ha), and Sebangkau watershed (193,125 ha).

Administrative Districts 

Sambas Regency consists of nineteen districts (kecamatan), tabulated below with their populations at the 2010 Census[3] and their administrative centres:
Resultado de imagem para Sambas Regency

 BENGKAYANG REGENCY

Bengkayang (Chinese孟嘉影) is a regency ("kabupaten") in West Kalimantan Province of Indonesia, (on the island of Borneo). It was originally a part of Sambas Regency, but following the expansion of the population in that area, Sambas Regency was divided into Sambas Regency and Bengkayang Regency, and Singkawang City was subsequently cut out of Bengkayang Regency. The regency now covers an area of 5,075.48 km2, and had a population of 215,277 at the 2010 Census;[1] the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 222,645.
Bengkayang is located in northern West Kalimantan, sharing a border with Sarawak in Malaysia. With arable land and favourable relief, the agricultural sector is the main economic source.[2] Bengkayang is also rich in natural resources.
Bengkayang is still lagging in term of economic development, but there is a hope that providing local autonomy will catalyze development. A water processing plant has been developed, so the population can enjoy access to clean water.
Resultado de imagem para Bengkayang Regency

LIST OF  REGENCIES AND CITES INDONSIA 

This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia. Both regencies and cities are second-level administrative subdivision in Indonesia, immediately below the provinces, and above the districts.[1]
In Indonesia, both regency and city are at the same administration level, each having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in demography, size and economy. Generally, a regency comprises a rural, larger area than a city. A city usually has non-agriculturaleconomic activities.
A regency (Indonesiankabupaten) is headed by a regent, known locally as bupati, while a city is headed by a mayor (walikota). All regents, mayors and members of legislatures are directly elected via elections to serve for a five year term which can be renewed once. Each regency or city is divided further into districts more commonly known as kecamatan, or distrik in Papua.
An administrative city is a city without its own local legislatures (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah). The mayor of an administrative city is directly appointed by the Governor. This type of city in Indonesia is only found in Jakarta which consisted of 5 administrative cities and 1 administrative regency.
Following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities became the key administrative units responsible for providing most governmental services.[2]
The list below groups regencies and cities in Indonesia by provinces. Each regency has an administrative centre, the regency seat.[3]
Resultado de imagem para List of agencies and cities of Indonesia